Functions from grunts and you can strong grunts created by territorial guys and grunts produced by people of your corkwing wrasse
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Desk 2. For males, number of audio analysed is given as the total number additionally the set of audio analysed for each and every private in brackets. For men, quantity of colony websites equal what amount of boys recorded, for women, it means what number of nests at which i observed them. Men voice attributes had been averaged on private top just before calculating the latest demonstrated study. Indicate ± SD | Median is provided into the quantity of pulses for every voice, period, heartrate and you can dominant volume

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Figure 3. Multiple heart circulation audio created by the new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you may associated spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt out of a territorial men corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt out of an effective territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt of a woman corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram options: fifty dB active variety, Hamming window (raised sine-squared), 0.008 s windows duration (men and women grunt), 0.08 s window size (male strong grunt)

Figure step 3. Multiple heart circulation songs produced by new corkwing wrasse. Wave-form (top) and you will related spectrogram (below). (a) Grunt off an excellent territorial male corkwing wrasse. (b) Deep grunt off a good territorial men corkwing wrasse. (c) Grunt regarding a female corkwing wrasse. Spectrogram configurations: 50 dB dynamic assortment, Hamming windows (elevated sine-squared), 0.008 s window length (female and male grunt), 0.08 s screen duration (male strong grunt)

Because of the different structure of grunts and deep grunts, we only compared the sound properties statistically, which were the same in both types of grunt, i.e. dominant frequency and duration. The two male grunt types differ significantly from each other in both propertiespared to deep grunts, male grunts are of a shorter duration (t-test: t = 5.44, P < 0.00step one, CI = ?0.47–1.09). The dominant frequency is higher in male grunts than in male deep grunts (Mann Whitney U test: W = 0, N1 = 17, N2 = 11, P < 0.001). Table 2 presents all measured sound properties for comparison.

Compared to male grunts, female grunts had a significantly lower pulse-rate (t-test: t = -6.71, P < 0.0001, CI = -- -). Grunts of males and females had a similar dominant frequency (t-test: t = 1.38, P = 0.17, CI = -0.05- 0.26), duration (t-test: t = 0.47, P = 0.64, CI = -0.19- 0.26), and number of pulses (Mann Whitney U test: W = 302, N1 = 17, N2 = 35, P = 0.94).

Single-pulse music

The selection of obviously assignable clicks triggered the analysis off 102 men clicks regarding 31 videos regarding 19 somebody and you will 66 girls presses away from 20 movies from the nests out-of 14 males. Your choice of certainly assignable plops contributed to the research out-of 73 male plops out of twenty-eight films from 18 clips and you will 66 people plops out-of 21 clips in the nests of fourteen boys. Averaging male music for each personal men resulted in a sample measurements of letter = 18 to have presses, and you may letter = 17 to own plops.

Clicks are sharp, single-pulse broadband sounds with their main energy in a frequency range of several hundred Hz, while the sound pressure level difference across the harmonics are small (Figure 4(a), Table 3). The dominant frequency of clicks was significantly higher in males than in females (Mann Whitney U test: W = 409, N1 = 35, N2 = 66, P = 0.04). However, there were some female clicks for which the dominant frequency was much higher than in most clicks (up to 7200 Hz). We did not see any technical reason to exclude these outliers from the analysis. Clicks did not differ between males and females in the sound pressure level difference between dominant frequency and its 5 th harmonic (t-test: tforty-eight.4 = 0.84, P = 0.40, CI = ?2.17–5.31).

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